Enfield measured about six miles long by five miles wide. There were two major villages, the center, and the upper village called Smith's. Three hills of note overlooked the center; Mount Ram, Little Quabbin Mountain, and Big Quabbin Mountain. The two churches in town were Methodist-Episcopal and Congregational. A Grange Hall and the only brick town hall in the valley were in the center. The Swift River Hotel thrived from 1832 until the end of town as the major inn. Large fires in 1876, 1896 and 1905 ravaged central business blocks, but each time they were rebuilt. Enfield Center had a post office from 1823 until January 4, 1939, and Smith's had one from 1892-1936. The Athol and Enfield Railroad connected both villages with Athol and Springfield from 1873-1935. State Highways 109 and 21 passed through town in the last years of its existence.
The Middle and East branches of the Swift River joined north of town. Textiles and wood products predominated, and dozens of mills and factories took advantage of this water power, including distilleries, a tanyard, a box shop, a factory that made pearl buttons from oyster shells, and factories that produced Satinette fabric, a combination of wool and silk. The two major factories were the Swift River Company (1821-1935) and Minot Manufacturing Co., both of which made textiles.
Enfield also had a lively export business in whetstones made of sandstone from Great Quabbin Mountain. The mountain was known for mysterious internal explosions, now explained as seismic activity, that used to shake the dishes off the walls of Enfield homes. Earlier, the Nipmuc Indians had given the mountain a wide berth, believing it to be the home of demons.
Smith's Village, named for the family who developed a weaving industry there, was also very successful. Smith's was a company town full of Irish weavers, imported sheep and mills which produced cotton, wool and wool-silk cloth that had a world-wide reputation for quality.
Distinguished citizens include Francis Underwood (1825-94) a diplomat and author of nine books (including a history of the town) and sculptor Edward Clark Potter (1854-1923) who created the stone lions that guard the entrance to the New York Public Library.
Enfield's last town meeting was held April 9, 1938, 19 days before it was disincorporated. The last residents were not evacuated until early 1939. Portions of Enfield's territory were absorbed by Belchertown, New Salem, Pelham and Ware.